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  Gandhiji Time Line
  Source: The Gandhi Reader, edited by Homer A. Jack, Samata Books, Madras, 1984
1869 Oct.  2 Born at Porbandar, Kathiawad, son of Karamchand (Kaba) and Putlibai Gandhi.
1876   Attended primary school in Rajkot, where his family moved.
1876   Betrothed to Kasturba (called Kasturba in her old age), daughter of Gokuldas Makanji, a merchant
1881   Entered high school in Rajkot.
1883   Married to Kasturba.
1885   Father died at age of 63.
1887   Passed matriculation examination at Ahmedabad and entered Samaldas College, Bhavnagar, Kathiawad, but found studies difficult and remained only one term.
1888   First of four sons born.
1891 Sept. Sailed from Bombay for England to study law.
1891   Summer. Returned to India after being called to bar. Began practice of law in Bombay and Rajkot.
1893 April Sailed for South Africa to become lawyer for an Indian firm.
1893   Found himself subjected to all kinds of color discrimination.
1894   Prepared to return to India after completing law case, but was persuaded by Indian colony to remain in South Africa and do public work and earn a living as a lawyer.
1894   Drafted first petition sent by the Indians to a South African legislature.
1894 May Organised Natal Indian Congress.
1896   Returned to India for six months to bring back his wife and two children to Natal.
1896 Dec. Sailed for South Africa with family. Was mobbed when he disembarked at Durban for what Europeans thought he wrote about South Africa when he was in India.
1899   Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for British in Boer War.
1901   Embarked with family for India, promising to return to South Africa if Indian community there needed his services again.
1901 – 1902   Travelled extensively in India, attended Indian National Congress meeting in Calcutta, and opened law office in Bombay.
1902   Returned to South Africa after urgent request from Indian community.
1903   Summer. Opened law office in Johannesburg.
1904   Established the weekly journal, Indian Opinion.
1904   Organised Phoenix Settlement near Durban, after reading Ruskin's Unto This Last.
1906 March Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for Zulu "Rebellion".
1906   Took vow of continence for life.
1906 Sept. First satyagraha campaign began with meeting in Johannesburg in protest against proposed Asiatic ordinance directed against Indian immigrants in Transvaal.
1906 Oct. Sailed for England to present Indians’ case to Colonial Secretary and started back to South Africa in December.
1907 June Organised satyagraha against compulsory registration of Asians ("The Black Act").
1908 Jan. Stood trial for instigating satyagraha and was sentenced to two months' imprisonment in Johannesburg jail (his first imprisonment).
1908 Jan. Was summoned to consult General Smuts at Pretoria; compromise reached; was released from jail.
1908 Feb. Attacked and wounded by Indian extremist, Mir Alam, for reaching settlement with Smuts.
1908  Aug. After Smuts broke agreement, second satyagraha campaign began with bonfire of registration certificates.
1908  Oct. Arrested for not having certificate, and sentenced to two months' imprisonment in Volksrust jail.
1909 Feb. Sentenced to three months’ imprisonment in Volksrust and Pretoria jails.
1909  June Sailed for England again to present Indians' case.
1909 Nov. Returned to South Africa, writing Hind Swaraj en route.
1910 May Established Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg.
1913   Began penitential fast (one meal a day for more than four months) because of moral lapse of two members of Phoenix Settlement.
1913  Sept. Helped campaign against nullification of marriages not celebrated according to Christian rites, with Kasturba and other women being sentenced for crossing the Transvaal border without permits.
1913  Nov. Third satyagraha campaign begun by leading "great march" of 2,000 Indian miners from Newcastle across Transvaal border in Natal.
1913 Nov. Arrested three times in four days  (at Palmford, Standerton, and Teakworth) and sentenced at Dundee to nine months'  imprisonment; tried at Volksrust in second trial and sentenced to three months'  imprisonment with his European co-workers, Polak and Kallenbach. Imprisoned in Volksrust jail for a few days and then taken to Bloemfontein in Orange Free State.
1913 Dec. Released unconditionally in expectation of a compromise settlement, C.F. Andrews and W.W. Pearson having been sent by Indians in India to negotiate.
1914 Jan. Underwent fourteen days' fast for moral lapse of members of Phoenix Settlement
1914 Jan. Satyagraha campaign suspended, with pending agreement between Smuts, C.F. Andrews, and Gandhi, and with ultimate passage of Indian Relief Act.
 1914 July Left South Africa forever,  sailing from Cape town for London with Kasturba and Kallenbach, arriving just at beginning  of World War I.
1914   Organised Indian Ambulance Corps in England, but was obliged to sail for India because of pleurisy.
1915   Secured removal of customs harassment of passengers at Viramgam; first incipient satyagraha campaign in India.
1915 May Established Satyagraha Ashram at Kochrab, near Ahmedabad, and soon admitted an untouchable family; in 1917 moved ashram to new site on Sabarmati River.
1916 Feb. Gave speech at opening of Hindu University at Benares.
1917   Helped secure removal of recruiting of South African indenture workers in India.
1917   Led successful satyagraha campaign for rights of peasants on indigo plantations in Champaran. Defied an order to leave area in April, was arrest at Motihari and tried, but case was withdrawn. Mahadev Desai joined him at Champaran.
1918 Feb. Led strike of mill workers at Ahmedabad. Mill owner agreed to arbitration after his three-day fast (his first fast in India).
1918 March Led satyagraha campaign for peasants in Kheda.
1918   Attended Viceroy's War Conference  at Delhi and agreed that Indians should be recruited for World War I.
1918   Began recruiting campaign, but was taken ill and came near death; agreed to drink goat's milk and learned spinning during convalescence.
1919   Spring. Rowlatt Bills (perpetuating withdrawal of civil liberties for seditious crimes) passed, and first all-India satyagraha campaign conceived.
1919  April Organised nation-wide hartal - suspension of activity for a day - against Rowlatt Bills.
1919  April Arrested at Kosi near Delhi on way to Punjab and escorted back to Bombay, but never tried.
 1919   Fasted at Sabarmati for three days in penitence for violence and suspended satyagraha campaign, which he called a “Himalayan miscalculation" because people were not disciplined enough.
 1919   Assumed editorship of English weekly, Young India, and Gujarati weekly, Navajivan.
1919 Oct. After five months' refusal, authorities allowed him to visit scene of April disorders in Punjab. Worked closely with Motilal Nehru. Conducted extensive inquiry into violence in many Punjab villages.
1920 April. Elected president of All-India Home Rule League.
1920 June Successfully urged resolution for  a satyagraha campaign of non-cooperation at Moslem Conference at Allahabad and at  Congress sessions at Calcutta (Sept.) and Nagpur (Dec.)
1920 Aug Second all-India satyagraha campaign began when he gave up Kaisar-i-Hind medal.
1921   Presided at opening of first shop selling homespun (khadi) in Bombay.
1921 Aug. Presided at bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay.
1921 Sept. Gave up wearing shirt and cap and resolved to wear only a loin-cloth in devotion to homespun cotton and simplicity.
1921 Nov. Fasted at Bombay for five days because of communal rioting following visit of Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII and Duke of Windsor).
1921 Dec. Mass civil disobedience, with thousands in jail. Gandhi invested with "sole executive authority" on behalf of Congress.
1922 Feb. Suspended mass disobedience because of violence at Chauri Chaura and undertook five-day fast of penance at Bardoli.
1922 March Arrested at Sabarmati in charge of sedition in Young India. Pleaded guilty in famous
1922   Statement at the "great trial" in Ahmedabad before Judge Broomfield. Sentenced to six years' imprisonment in Yeravda jail.
1923   Wrote Satyagraha in South Africa and part of his autobiography in prison
1924 Jan. Was operated on for appendicitis and unconditionally released from prison in February.
1924 Sept Began 21-day "great fast" at Mohammed Ali's home near Delhi as penance for communal rioting (between Hindus and Moslems), especially at Kohat.
1924 Dec. Presided over Congress session at Belgaum as president.
1925 Nov. Fasted at Sabarmati for seven days because of misbehaviour of members of ashram.
1925  Dec. Announced one-year political silence and immobility at Congress session at Cawnpore.
1927   No-tax satyagraha campaign launched at Bardoli, led by Sardar Patel.
1928 Dec. Moved compromise resolution at Congress session at Calcutta, calling for complete independence within one year, or else the beginning of another all-Indian satyagraha campaign.
1929 March Arrested for burning foreign cloth in Calcutta and fined one rupee.
1929 Dec. Congress session at Lahore declared complete independence and a boycott of the legislature and fixed January 26 as National Independence Day. Third all-Indian satyagraha campaign began.
1930 12-Mar Set out from Sabamarti with 79 volunteers on historic salt march 200 miles to sea at Dandi.
1930 6-Apr Broke salt law by picking salt up at seashore as whole world watched.
1930  May Arrested by armed policemen at Karadi and imprisoned in Yeravda jail without trial.
1930   One hundred thousand persons arrested. There was no Congress in December because all leaders were in jail.
1931 Jan. Released unconditionally with 30 other Congress leaders.
1931 March Gandhi-Irwin (Viceroy) Pact signed, which ended civil disobedience.
1931  Aug. Sailed from Bombay accompanied by Desai, Naidu, Mira, etc., for the second Round Table Conference, arriving in London via Marseilles, where he was met by C.F. Andrews.
1931   Autumn. Resided at Kingsley Hall in London slums, broadcast to America, visited universities, met celebrities, and attended Round Table Conference sessions.
1931 Dec. Left England for Switzerland, where he met Romain Rolland, and Italy, where he met Mussolini.
1931 Dec. Arrived in India. Was authorised by Congress to renew satyagraha campaign (fourth nation-wide effort).
1932 Jan. Arrested in Bombay with Sardar Patel and detained without trial at Yeravda prison.
1932 Sept. 20 Began "perpetual fast unto death" while in prison in protest of British action giving separate electorates to untouchables.
1932 Sept. 26 Concluded "epic fast” with historic cell scene in presence of Tagore after British accepted "Yeravda Pact".
1932  Dec. Joined fast initiated by another prisoner, Appasaheb Patwardhan, against untouchability; but fast ended in two days.
1933   Began weekly publication of Harijan in place of Young India.
1933  8-May Began self-purification fast of 21 days against untouchability and was released from prison by government on first day.  Fast concluded after 21 days at Poona.
1933 July Disbanded Sabarmati ashram,  which became centre for removal of untouchability
1933 Aug Arrested and imprisoned at Yeravda for four days with 34 members of his ashram. When he refused to leave Yeravda village for Poona, he was sentenced to one year's imprisonment at Yeravda.
1933 Aug. 16 Began fast against refusal of  government to grant him permission to work against untouchability while in prison; on  fifth day of fast he was removed to Sassoon Hospital; his health was precarious; he was  unconditionally released on eighth day.
1933 Nov. Began ten-month tour of every province in India to help end untouchability.
1933  Nov. Kasturba arrested and imprisoned for sixth time in two years.
1934   Summer. Three separate attempts made on his life.
1934 July Fasted at Wardha ashram for seven days in penance against intolerance of opponents of the movement against untouchability.
1934 Oct. Launched All-India Village Industries Association.
1935   Health declined; moved to Bombay to recover.
1936   Visited Seagon, a village near Wardha in the Central Provinces, and decided to settle there... (This was renamed Sevagram in 1940 and eventually became an ashram for his disciples.)
1937 Jan. Visited Travancore for removal of untouchability.
1938   Autumn. Tour of Northwest Frontier Province with the Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.
1939 March Began fast unto death as part of satyagraha campaign in Rajkot; fast ended four days later when Viceroy appointed as arbitrator.
1940 Oct. Launched limited, individual civil-disobedience campaign against Britain's refusal to allow Indians to express their opinions regarding World War II - 23,000 persons imprisoned within a year.
1942   Harijan resumed publication after being suspended for 15 months.
1942 March Met Sir Stafford Cripps in New Delhi but called his proposals "a post-dated cheque"; they were ultimately rejected by Congress.
1942 Aug. Congress passed "Quit India" resolution - the final nation-wide satyagraha campaign - with Gandhi as leader.
1942 Aug. 9 Arrested with other Congress leaders and Kasturba and imprisoned in Aga Khan Palace near Poona, with populace revolting in many parts of India. He began correspondence with Viceroy.
1942 Aug. Mahadev Desai, Gandhi's secretary and intimate, died in Palace.
1943 Feb. 10 Began 21-day fast at Aga Khan Palace to end deadlock of negotiations between Viceroy and Indian leaders.
1944 Feb. 22 Kasturba died in detention at Aga Khan Palace at age of seventy-four.
1944 6-May After decline in health, was released unconditionally from detention (this was his last imprisonment; he had spent 2338 days in jail during his life time).
1944 Sept Important talks with Jinnah of Moslem League in Bombay on Hindu-Moslem unity.
1946 March Conferred with British Cabinet Mission in New Delhi.
1946 Nov. Began four-month tour of 49 villages in East Bengal to quell communal rioting over Moslem representation in provisional government.
1947   March. Began tour of Bihar to lessen Hindu-Moslem tensions.
1947 March Began conferences in New Delhi with Viceroy (Lord Mountbatten) in Jinnah.
1947 May Opposed Congress decision to accept division of country into India and Pakistan.
1947 Aug. 15 Fasted and prayed to combat riots in Calcutta as India was partitioned and granted independence.
1947 Sept. Fasted for three days to stop communal violence in Calcutta.
1947 Sept. Visited Delhi and environs to stop rioting and to visit camps of refugees (Hindus and Sikhs from the Punjab).
1948 Jan. 13 Fasted for five days in Delhi for communal unity.
1948 Jan. 20 Bomb exploded in midst of his prayer meeting at Birla House, Delhi.
1948 Jan. 30 Assassinated in 79th year at Birla House by Nathuram Vinayak Godse.
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